Canadian Sales Tax Rates (as at October 1, 2016)

Canadian Sales Tax Rates Chart
As at October 1, 2016

 

Province/Territory Provincial Sales Tax GST/HST Rate GST Included in PST Tax Base Combined Rate
British Columbia 7% 5% N/A 12%
Alberta Nil 5% N/A 5%
Saskatchewan 5% 5% No 10%
Manitoba 8% 5% No 13%
Ontario N/A 13% N/A 13%
Quebec 9.975% 5% N/A 14.975%
New Brunswick N/A 15% N/A 15%
Nova Scotia N/A 15% N/A 15%
Newfoundland/Labrador N/A 15% N/A 15%
Prince Edward Island N/A 15% Yes 15%
Northwest Territories Nil 5% N/A 5%
Yukon Nil 5% N/A 5%
Nunavut Nil 5% N/A 5%

The HST rate for Newfoundland/Labrador increased to 15% from 13% effective July 1, 2016.

The HST rate for New Brunswick increased to 15% from 13% effective July 1, 2016.

The HST rate for Prince Edward Island increased to 15% effective October 1, 2016.

The ITC recapture rate in Ontario decreased to 50% as of July 1, 2016.

Steps To Take

  1. Are you charging the correct amount of sales tax?
    • Sales departments/accounts receivable departments that have programmed HST-included pricing will need to update the sales tax rates in their systems.
    • Even companies that calculate sales tax separately will need to make sure that computer programs have been updated.
  2. Are you paying the correct amount of sales tax?
    • Payroll departments will need to review invoices in the months following the sales tax increases to ensure that they are being charged the correct amount of sales tax.
    • This means not paying the higher rate for property and services provided before July 1, 2016 and paying the higher rate, if applicable, after July 1, 2016.
  3. Are you claiming the correct amount of ITCs?
    • The finance department will need to make sure that computerized programs that break out the amount of HST payable on invoices have been updated to reflect the higher HST rates.
  4. Are Ontario businesses not giving too much back?
    • The ITC recapture rate in Ontario has decreased to 50% from 75%.  This means the amount of ITCs that companies can claim may have increased for some large businesses.
    • Have you updated your computerized records to reduce the recapture rate?

For more information, please contact Cyndee Todgham Cherniak at 416-307-4168 or at cyndee@lexsage.com. Alternatively, visit www.lexsage.com.

Taxpayer Interest And Penalty Relief: How Can A Taxpayer Get Some Relief?

Canadian taxpayers are entitled to apply to the Canada Revenue Agency for taxpayer relief of penalties and interest.  All that is required is for a taxpayer who has been assessed to complete and submit an RC4288 form "Request for Taxpayer Relief - Cancel or Waive Penalties and Interest".  This form can be used for goods and services tax ("GST") and harmonized sales tax ("HST") relief in addition to income tax.

The form is relatively simple - however, the devil is in the details.  Section 2 is very important and any taxpayer seeking a significant amount of relief should take care in writing the reasons for the request for relief.  We often prepare a separate document providing the facts and reasons why relief should be granted - we do not limit the written communication to the form.  We also attach relevant documents to show transparency and openness.

It is important to understand that relief is not guaranteed.  While the CRA has broad discretion to grant relief, they also have broad discretion to deny relief. The CRA provides limited information about when they will grant penalty and interest relief.  The CRA indicates that the Minister of National Revenue may grant relief from penalty or interest when the following types of situations prevent a taxpayer from meeting their tax obligations:

  • extraordinary circumstances:  Penalties or interest may be cancelled or waived in whole or in part when they result from circumstances beyond a taxpayer's control. Extraordinary circumstances that may have prevented a taxpayer from making a payment when due, filing a return on time, or otherwise complying with a tax obligation include, but are not limited to, the following examples:
    • natural or human-made disasters, such as a flood or fire;
    • civil disturbances or disruptions in services, such as a postal strike;
    • serious illness or accident; and
    • serious emotional or mental distress, such as death in the immediate family;
  • actions of the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA): The CRA may also cancel or waive penalties or interest when they result primarily from CRA actions, including:
    • processing delays that result in taxpayers not being informed, within a reasonable time, that an amount was owing;
    • errors in CRA material which led a taxpayer to file a return or make a payment based on incorrect information;
    • incorrect information provided to a taxpayer by the CRA;
    • errors in processing;
    • delays in providing information, resulting in taxpayers not being able to meet their tax obligations in a timely manner; and
    • undue delays in resolving an objection or an appeal, or in completing an audit;
  • inability to pay or financial hardship:  The CRA may, in circumstances where there is a confirmed inability to pay amounts owing, consider waiving or cancelling interest in whole or in part to enable taxpayers to pay their account. For example, this could occur when:
    • a collection has been suspended because of an inability to pay caused by the loss of employment and the taxpayer is experiencing financial hardship;
    • a taxpayer is unable to conclude a payment arrangement because the interest charges represent a significant portion of the payments; or
    • payment of the accumulated interest would cause a prolonged inability to provide basic necessities (financial hardship) such as food, medical help, transportation, or shelter; consideration may be given to cancelling all or part of the total accumulated interest; and
  • other circumstances: The CRA may also grant relief if a taxpayer's circumstances do not fall within the situations described above.

The CRA is working to improve its procedures for dealing with Requests for Taxpayer Relief. When a completed form is filed with the supporting documentation, the CRA should send a letter to the requester acknowledging receipt of the Request for Taxpayer Relief.  The file should be assigned to a CRA officer and the taxpayer should receive requests for relevant documentation (unless a full set of relevant documents is provided with the Request for Taxpayer Relief).

If the taxpayer gets a decision that is not favourable - it happens often - then there is the ability to request an impartial review of the CRA officer's decision by the CRA (not the same CRA officer who rejected the request).

If the review procedure ends in a rejection of the requested relief, it is possible to seek a review by the Federal Court of Appeal by way of a judicial review.  However, judicial reviews often are an expensive legal procedure and can cost tens of thousands of dollars (even hundreds of thousands of dollars in some cases depending on the complexity of the issues). There have been judicial review applications filed and the Federal Court of Appeal has in some cases sided with the taxpayer.

I will be honest with you - the Request for Taxpayer Relief Program can be frustrating for persons seeking relief. That does not mean it is not worth the effort and one should not try. Just know that you may feel like you are still stuck in the mud while pursuing a process that may take time.

For more information, please contact Cyndee Todgham Cherniak at 416-307-4168 or at cyndee@lexsage.com.  We have many useful articles about tax audits under Free Information - Sales Tax, Harmonized Sales Tax (HST) and Goods and Services Tax (GST) Articles.

15 Stages Of A Canada Revenue Agency GST/HST Audit

If you have never been audited before, you probably have no idea what to expect.  Most audits follow the same 15 stages (more or less).  On the taxpayer's side of things, each stage is stressful.

  1. CRA Selection Process:  The taxpayer usually has no involvement in this process.  It all happens behind the scenes and the taxpayer can only guess why their name was selected. Sometimes the taxpayer is randomly selected.  Sometimes the taxpayer is selected as a result of the industry segment in which they operate.  Sometimes the taxpayer is selected because of something in a filing with the CRA.  Sometimes the taxpayer is selected because of a tip made to the CRA.
  2. The Audit Letter: The taxpayer receives a letter from the CRA notifying them that they are to be audited. Normally, the taxpayer is asked to contact the CRA auditor.  However, sometimes the auditor just shows up at the business premises.
  3. The CRA letter requesting certain documents:  Usually the CRA auditor will send to the taxpayer a letter indicating what documents need to be provided before the initial meeting at the taxpayer's premises or what documents must be available for the first day of the audit.
  4. Initial Meeting:  If the audit occurs at the taxpayer's premises, the auditor will have a meeting at the start of the audit.  The auditor explains what is expected during the audit.  The taxpayer should also communicate to the auditor what is expected.  The taxpayer may indicate that the auditor must deal with a specific person so that the entire organization does not end up working for the auditor.
  5. Fieldwork:  The on-site audit is the fieldwork stage.  The fieldwork can take place over a few days or over a lengthy period of time.
  6. Office work: Usually the auditor will take information back to the CRA offices and work on the audit from the CRA premises.
  7. Follow-up questions: It is common for the CRA auditor to contact the taxpayer after the fieldwork stage of the audit. Sometimes additional documents are requested.  Sometimes additional questions are asked.
  8. Preliminary Report: The CRA auditor will prepare a proposal and send it to the taxpayer for comment.  Usually a proposed assessment number is provided to the taxpayer.
  9. Response Letter: The taxpayer has an opportunity to change the minds of the CRA.  This is the best opportunity to stop an incorrect assessment from being issued.
  10. Notice of Re-assessment: The CRA auditor sends to the taxpayer the Notice of Reassessment setting out how much is being assessed.
  11. CRA Collections: As of the date of the Notice of Re-assessment, a debt is due to Her Majesty.  CRA Collections may start collection activities immediately after the Notice of Re-Assessment is issued.
  12. Notice of Objection: If a taxpayer disagrees with a Notice of Re-Assessment, the taxpayer can file a Notice of Objection.
  13. Objection: The taxpayer will communicate with a CRA Appeals Officer and the re-assessment will either be confirmed, amended to reversed.
  14. Notice of Appeal: Assuming that not all the issues are addressed in the objection stage, a taxpayer may file an appeal with the Tax Court of Canada.
  15. Day in Tax Court: A taxpayer will have their day(s) in the Tax Court of Canada if the appeal is not settled.  A Tax Court judge will listen to the parties and render a judgement.

For more information, please contact Cyndee Todgham Cherniak at 416-307-4168 or at cyndee@lexsage.com.  We have many useful articles about tax audits under Free Information - Sales Tax, Harmonized Sales Tax (HST) and Goods and Services Tax (GST) Articles.

Canadian Sales Tax Rates (as at January 1, 2016)

Canadian Sales Tax Rates Chart
As at January 1, 2016

 

Province/Territory

Provincial Sales Tax

GST/HST Rate

GST Included in PST Tax Base

Combined Rate

British Columbia

7%
 

5%
 

N/A

12%

Alberta

Nil

5%

N/A

5%

Saskatchewan

5%

5%

No

10%

Manitoba

8%

5%

No

13%

Ontario

N/A

13%

N/A

13%

Quebec

9.975%

5%

N/A

14.975%

New Brunswick

N/A

13%

N/A

13%

Nova Scotia

N/A

15%

N/A

15%

Newfoundland/Labrador

N/A

13%

N/A

13%

Prince Edward Island

9%

5%

Yes

14%

Northwest Territories

Nil

5%

N/A

5%

Yukon

Nil

5%

N/A

5%

Nunavut

Nil

5%

N/A

5%



 

Newfoundland/Labrador Has Cancelled HST Rate Increase

On December 14, 2015, the Government of Newfoundland/Labrador officially cancelled the proposed HST rate increase - the Department of Finance has issued a press release.  The 8% PVAT portion was scheduled to increase to 10% (based on an April 2015 announcement by the previous government). The combined rate will stay at 13% (rather than going up to 15%)  That is not going to happen now - because the new provincial government has decided to cancel the increase after the November 30th election.

The Government of Newfoundland/Labrador has asked the Government of Canada to accommodate the cancellation. On December 15, 2015, the Canada Revenue Agency issued a Fact Sheet cancelling the HST rate increase.

It is very important for businesses to know that the HST rate increase has been cancelled. There was uncertainty.  Businesses have been busy getting their systems ready to collect the higher rate of HST.  In light of the cancellation of the HST rate increase, the transition rules designed to determine which tax rate to charge/pay are no longer applicable.

HOWEVER, a few tax changes will still take place on January 1, 2016.  For example, the proposed new municipal rebate (25% stating January 1, 2016, 57.14% starting January 1, 2017) will not be impacted by the cancellation of the HST rate increase and the transitional rules for the municipal rebate rate increase will continue to apply. In addition, new remittance rates for the streamlined accounting methods affecting eligible public service bodies (i.e., municipalities) begin after December 31, 2015.

For more information ,please contact Cyndee Todgham Cherniak at cyndee@lexsage.com.

While Notices of Objection May Be A "DIY" Procedure, You Must Follow The Law

The Excise Tax Act (Canada) has been drafted to allow taxpayers who have been assessed GST/HST to file a notice of objection.  There is nothing in Section 301 of the Excise Tax Act that requires a taxpayer to hire a professional to assist with the filing of a notice of objection.  For this reason, I call it a "Do-It-Yourself" procedure.

However, there have been times when the taxpayer does not follow the instructions in the legislation (usually because the taxpayer did not obtain a copy of the legislative provisions, did not know where to obtain  the legislative provisions or did not understand the legislative provisions). When a taxpayer does not file a notice of objection in the prescribed form and providing the required information, the Tax Court may not be able to help the taxpayer overturn the assessment.

I can help with showing you where to find the prescribed form.  Use a GST Form 189 to file a Notice of Objection. Check to see if the form has been updated (I can post a form, but after my post the document can change).

I can help you find the instructions. GST Memorandum 31 "Objections and Appeals" contains useful information.

Subsection 301(1) of the Excise Tax Act requires:

Any person who has been assessed and who objects to the assessment may, within ninety days after the day notice of the assessment is sent to the person, file with the Minister a notice of objection in the prescribed form and manner setting out the reasons for the objection and all relevant facts.

What this means is that a taxpayer has 90 days to file the notice of objection.  Please put this date in your calendar and circle it is red.  Also, put a reminder in your calendar a few weeks before the deadline to make sure you have the notice of objection on the front burner and under control.

The law requires that the taxpayer set out the reasons for the objection and all relevant facts.  You cannot merely send a letter stating that you object to the CRA's assessment.

If the taxpayer is a "specified person", the amount of information and detail required by subsection 301(1.1) of the Excise Tax Act is greater.

In a number of cases, the Tax Court has determined that taxpayers have not filed a valid notice of objection.  One of those cases was an income tax case - 870 Holdings Ltd. v Her Majesty the Queen, .  In this case the taxpayer wrote a letter to the CRA requesting more time to provide requested information.  This letter did not constitute a notice of objection. The Federal Court of Appeal agreed - 2003 FCA 460.

In Suganthi Natarajan v. Her Majesty the Queen, the Tax Court also determined it court not hear an appeal because a valid notice of objection.

The notice of objection is am important document in the tax dispute settlement process.  it is the first step in resolving a disagreement with the CRA. The taxpayer files it with the tax authorities and eventually either the taxpayer of the Crown provides a copy to the Tax Court of Canada.  While the Tax Court of Canada understands that the "DIY" appellant may not be perfect in all that they write, the judge needs to see that the taxpayer took the appropriate steps.  It the document is well written, it may leave a positive impression.

At LexSage, we would be please to assist.  Please call 416-307-4168.

How Much is That Doggie in the Window?

A pet (dog or cat or other) will cost more because he veterinarian bills are subject to HST.  Prior to HST, you would have paid Ontario retail sales tax (PST) to the pet store when you purchased your pet and you would have paid PST on the food and toys.  However, prior to July 1, 2010, you would not have paid PST on the vet exams and tests.  Now, you will pay HST on virtually every charge by the vet.

On December 28, 2010, I took my dog to the vet as she had bloody sores on her back and was in pain. She cried most of the night and could not get comfortable.

The vet charged me $77.00 (plus HST) for the examination and made decisions to run tests.  The hospital cytology cost $66.00 plus HST, the skin scraping (which is actually gathering a little skin to analyze) cost $51.50 plus HST and the culture and sensitivity aerobic (which is testing the goopy matter for the type of infection so that the correct antibiotics are prescribed) cost $129.50 plus HST.

After the analysis, antibiotics were prescribed at $64.60 plus HST (the same antibiotics are not subject to HST when prescribed to a human), a medicated topical spray to calm skin cost $50.46 plus HST (again a similar treatment would be exempt if prescribed to a human patient).  I also purchased some skin sensitivity dog food that was subject to HST.

My poor dog was still very uncomfortable, so I took her back to the vet for a medicated bath (and that really helped).  The medicated bath was $65.00 plus HST.  The vet also prescribed another medicine to be added with food or to be injected in my dogs mouth with a syringe (without needle tip).  This cost another $49,32 plus HST.

I still need to purchase a three month supply of Invermectin to solve the real issue - demodex (the second incidence in the last two years and my dog is 10 years old).

In addition, I still need to take my dog for her annual physical in 2011, pay for her annual shots and her heart worm medication.  I also will take her for her semi-regular groomings and nail clippings.  I buy rawhide bones for her weekly teeth cleaning.  I should not forget to mention that I will continue to buy her dog food and pay HST.

All totaled, I will pay over $250 in HST in the first year of HST on my dog.

While I can make sacrifices to pay the HST, some cannot and should consider the ongoing costs of pets, including HST, when making purchasing decisions.  If I had to choose between relieving my dogs pain and treating her infection or not, it would be a hard decision.  my vet tells me that many pet owners since July 1, 2010 could not afford treatment for their pets and either the pet suffered or was euthanized.

HST Place of Supply Rules for Customs Brokers

On February 25, 2010, the Department of Finance released a News Release about what will be the HST place of supply rules after regulations are promulgated. Interestingly, the Department of Finance is going to create a separate rule for customs brokerage services. "Customs brokerage services" are currently understood to mean:

"a service of arranging for the release of imported goods, or fulfilling, in respect of the importation, (whether before, at the time of or after the release) any accounting,, reporting or information requirements imposed under the Customs Act or the Customs Tariff Act or any requirements under either of those Acts to remit any amount."

Since I wrote on March 17, 2010 about the HST rules for imports, I thought I should share the funny little place of supply rules for customs brokers services.

In the February 25, 2010 News Release, the Department of Finance wrote:

Under the current rules, the place of supply of a service of arranging for the release of imported goods, or fulfilling, in respect of the importation, (whether before, at the time of or after the release) any accounting,, reporting or information requirements imposed under the Customs Act or the Customs Tariff Act or any requirements under either of those Acts to remit any amount is in a province if the goods are situated in that province at the time of their release.

It is proposed that this rule continue to apply in respect of commercial goods. However, in the case of non-commercial goods, generally if the provincial component of HST for a participating province is imposed in respect of the importation of the goods, the supply of the customs brokerage service will be regarded as made in that participating province.

The above rules will not apply to the supply of any service provided in relation to an objection, appeal, re-determination, re-appraisal, review, refund, abatement, remission or drawback, or in relation to a request for any of the foregoing. These types of services will continue to be subject to the place of supply rules for services described in other parts of this document.

The changes to the Excise Tax Act or the Regulations still have to be made public and must undergo the applicable legislative steps to become law.

The CRA clarifies the place of supply rules in GST/HST Technical Information Bulletin B-103 "Harmonized Sales Tax: Place of suppy rules for determining whether a supply is made in a province" as follows:

Rule #1: If the importation is commercial goods (for which HST is not collected), the place of supply of the customs brokerage and related services is in the province in which the goods are released. Therefore, if the goods are released at Toronto Pearson Airport, the Ontario HST would apply. If the goods are released at the Vancouver Port, then British Columbia HST will apply.

However, if goods are placed in a bonded warehouse in Montreal, HST would not be applicable to the brokerage charges.

Rule #2: If the customs brokerage services relate to an objection, appeal, re-determination, re-appraisal, review, refund, abatement, remission or drawback, or in relation to a request for any of the foregoing (called herein "post-importation customs brokerage services"), Rule #1 does not apply. The general place of supply rules for services would be applicable.

The 5 main place of supply rules for services are applied in the following order:

(a) If the recipient's address or the address most closely connected with the supply in in the HST Zone, the applicable HST rate would be applied to the post-importation customs brokerage services;

(b) If the recipient does not have a Canadian address, the post-importation customs brokerage services will be considered to be supplied in the province in which the greatest proportion of the services is performed. For example, if the customs broker is located in Ontario and a customs broker in Ontario completes the B2 adjustments/appeals, then Ontario HST would apply.

(c) If 2 applies and the post-importation customs brokerage services are performed equally in two or more particular HST provinces, the HST province with the highest HST rate would be considered to be the place of supply.

(d) If 3 applies but a single HST province cannot be identified (same 13% rate in more than one province), the post-importation customs brokerage services will be subject to 13% HST.

(e) If the recipient does not have a Canadian address and the customs brokerage service is not performed primarily in an HST province or the HST Zone, then HST would not apply to the post-importation customs brokerage services.

Rule #3: If the importation relates to non-commercial goods, whether HST applies to the customs brokerage service will depend on whether the goods are subject to HST under the place of supply rules for goods. 

Proposed HST Place of Supply Rule For Real Property Is Relatively Straight-Forward

On February 25, 2010, Canada's Department of Finance released its proposed harmonized sales tax (HST) place of supply rules which will be used to determine whether a supplier (Seller) must charge, collect and remit HST in connection with a supply made in Canada and whether a recipient (Buyer) must pay HST in connection with an acquisition or importation and at what rate. Simply put, the proposed HST place of supply rules will be used to determine in which province a supply is considered to have occurred for HST purposes.

The proposed place of supply rule for real property is relatively straight-forward. With respect to the place of supply rule for real property, the Department of Finance did not make any changes to the current rule applicable in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, & Newfoundland and Labrador.

A supply of real property will be considered to be made in the province in which the real property is situated. If the real property being supplied is located in British Columbia, HST will be applicable at the rate of 12%. If the real property being supplied is located in Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick or Newfoundland and Labrador, HST will be applicable at the rate of 13%. If the real property being supplied is located in Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta or one of the three territories, HST will not be applicable. However, GST would be applicable at the rate of 5%.

The Department of Finance provides the following example:

    A sale of a warehouse situated in Sarnia, Ontario will be subject to HST at a rate of 13 per cent (a 5 per cent federal component and an 8 per cent Ontario component).

Some other examples would be:

  • A sale of timber lands situated in British Columbia will be subject to HST at a rate of 12 per cent (a 5 per cent federal component and an 7 per cent British Columbia component).
  • A sale of vacant land situated in Goderich, Ontario will be subject to HST at a rate of 13 per cent (a 5 per cent federal component and an 8 per cent Ontario component).
  • A sale of a resource property (the land component) in Alberta, will not be subject to HST, but will be subject to GST.

In addition, the supply of an interest in real property is considered to be a supply of real property and the HST place of supply rules for real property would apply. For example, an option to purchase real property would be considered to be real property. If a recipient pays an amount for the right to purchase a leased factory in 10 years, the payment would subject to HST if the factory is located in the HST Zone (British Columbia, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick or Newfoundland and Labrador.

The lease of real property is also considered to be a supply of real property. For example, a lease of office space in Toronto, Ontario will be subject to HST at a rate of 13 per cent (a 5 per cent federal component and an 8 per cent Ontario component).

If a company in Ontario leases a commercial office building in British Columbia, the supply of real property will be considered to be made in British Columbia. As a result, HST would be imposed at a rate of 12 per cent (a 5 per cent federal component and an 7 per cent British Columbia component) despite the fact the company is incorporated under the laws of Ontario. The key fact is that the real property that is being leased is located in British Columbia.

There will be situations where a person owns real property in more than one Canadian province and transfers all or some of its assets to another person. For example, a large Canadian company with real property assets in Ontario and Quebec sells all of the assets of its business. In this case, it is proposed that the place of supply rules will deem there to have been separate supplies of real property in Ontario and Quebec. The transfer of the real property located in Ontario would be subject to HST at a rate of 13 per cent (a 5 per cent federal component and an 8 per cent Ontario component). The transfer of the real property located in Quebec would be subject to GST at a rate of 5 per cent and would not be subject to HST (would be subject to QST).

Conversely, a payment made to break a real property lease would be considered to be a supply of real property and would be subject to HST if the real property is located in the HST Zone.

HST Place of Supply Rules for Services

Warning: On April 30, 2010 the Department of Finance released draft place of supply rules regulations that supersede/override the information in this post.  Please do not rely on the information in this post.

Harmonized Sales Tax (“HST") will become a reality in Ontario and British Columbia on July 1, 2010. And some businesses are required to start collecting HST as of May 1, 2010.

Businesses in the HST Zone  - Ontario, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland/Labrador - will have to use the newly released place of supply rules, some of which are different from the existing place of supply rules (for Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland/Labrador). The applicable HST rates are:

  • Ontario: 13% (5% GST and 8% provincial HST component)
  • British Columbia: 12% (5% GST and 7% provincial HST component)
  • Nova Scotia: 13% (5% GST and 8% provincial HST component)
  • New Brunswick: 13% (5% GST and 8% provincial HST component)
  • Newfoundland/Labrador: 13% (5% GST and 8% provincial HST component)

In addition, some businesses outside the HST Zone will be required to charge, collect, and remit HST to the Federal Government in accordance with the place of supply rules when the place of supply is within the HST Zone.

On February 25, 2010, Canada's Department of Finance released its proposed harmonized sales tax (HST) place of supply rules which will be used to determine whether a supplier must charge, collect and remit HST in connection with a supply made in Canada and whether a recipient must pay HST in connection with an acquisition or importation and at what rate. Simply put, the proposed HST place of supply rules will be used to determine in which province a supply is considered to have occurred for HST purposes.

The HST place of supply rules for services have evolved from the existing rules to reflect the addition of the larger economic provinces of Ontario and British Columbia to the HST Zone.

The first question to ask when applying the HST place of supply rules is: What is being supplied or sold? Is it property (tangible personal property, real property or intangible property) or a service? If the supplier is supplying or providing a service, then the HST place of supply rules for services should be used.

The next question is whether one of the specific place of supply rules applies or the general place of supply rules for services. Determine whether any of the following types of services are being provided and, if so, go to the specific place of supply rule:

  • personal services (e.g., a hair cut)
  • services in relation to real property (e.g., constructing a house);
  • services in relation to intangible property (e.g., designing a trade mark)
  • computer-related services and Internet access;
  • telecommunication services;
  • premium rate telephone services;
  • services in relation to a location specific event (e.g., participation in a conference);
  • passenger transportation services;
  • services supplied on board conveyances;
  • baggage charges;
  • services of child supervision;
  • services related to a ticket, voucher or reservation;
  • freight transportation services;
  • postage and delivery services;
  • customs brokerage services;
  • air navigation services;
  • repairs, maintenance, cleaning, alterations and other services relating to goods;
  • service of a trustee in respect of a trust governed by an RRSP, RRIF or RESP.

If the supplier is not providing any of the above listed specific services (and note the devil may be in the details or the unpublished legislation or regulations), then the general place of supply rules for services will apply. There are 4 general place of supply rules for services, which must be applied in the following order. Rule #1 and Rule # 2 are the fundamental rules. Rules #3 and Rule #4 are tie-breaker rules.

Rule #1: If a supply of a service is made and, in the normal course of business, the supplier obtains a particular address of the recipient that is

(a) a home or business address in Canada of the recipient,

(b) where the supplier obtains more than one home or business address in Canada of the recipient, the home or business address that is most closely connected with the supply, or

(c) where the supplier does not obtain a home or business address in Canada of the recipient, another Canadian address that is most closely connected with the supply,

the supply will be regarded as made in the province in which the particular address is situated.

NOTE: The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) has indicated that it will release additional guidance on how they plan to interpret the "most closely connected with the supply" requirement. The CRA plans on establishing a hierarchy of criteria to apply. The hierarchical criteria will be released in due course. However, we have been informed that the first criteria to apply are not the place of the billing address.

Rule # 2: If, in the normal course of business, an address in Canada of the recipient is not obtained by the supplier of a service, the supply will be regarded as having been made in a participating province if the part of the service that is performed in Canada is performed primarily in the participating provinces. In such instances, the supply will be regarded as made in the participating province in which the greatest proportion of the service is performed.

Rule #3: If (a) Rule #2 applies (i.e., no address in Canada of the recipient is obtained and the service that is performed in Canada is performed primarily in the participating provinces), and (b) a single participating province cannot be determined as being the participating province in which the greatest proportion of the service is performed because the service is performed equally in two or more particular participating provinces, then the supply will be regarded as made in the particular participating province for which the rate of the provincial component of HST is highest.

Rule #4: If Rule 3 applies, but a single participating province still cannot be determined to be the place of supply because the particular rate of the provincial component of the HST in two or more of the particular participating provinces is the same, the supplier will be required to charge HST by applying that particular rate. In other words, if 3 applies, but a single HST province cannot be identified (same 13% rate in more than one province), the services will be subject to 13% HST.

The application of the HST place of supply rules in any given situation may be a complicated legal task.

Would You Like To Play Audit Roulette In Ontario?

Last week at the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants Commodity Tax Symposium West in Calgary, a representative of Ontario stated to the audience that Ontario planned to conduct retail sales tax audits of most businesses in the next two years.

Pursuant to the Retail Sales Tax Act (Ontario), the normal audit period is four years. The audit period may be extended where there has been a misrepresentation attributable to neglect, carelessness or wilful default.

This is important to know because after the implementation of the harmonized sales tax (HST) on July 1, 2010, the Ontario Government will want to make sure that it has received all the retail sales tax required under the law as it was prior to HST. Just because we are moving to the HST, retail sales tax liabilities will continue. Auditors will continue to visit businesses (some would say plague businesses - but that is not very nice).

Businesses are now playing audit roulette. Will the auditor find the retail sales tax problems/mistakes that the business has been ignoring?

Businesses have three primary choices:

1. Continue to play audit roulette by continuing to ignore legacy retail sales tax problems;

2. Conduct an internal audit or control audit with a sales tax lawyer, accountant or consultant, identify the existing problems, and make a voluntary disclosure to report the mistakes to the Ministry of Revenue (come clean so to speak); and

3. Conduct an internal audit or control audit with a sales tax lawyer, accountant or consultant, identify the existing problems/mistakes and improved the processes and retroactively solve the problems to reduce exposure. For example, if a business sells goods that will be incorporated into goods for resale or will be resold by the purchaser, the business may ensure its purchase exemption certificates are in order. Another example would be that if a business should have collected tax on a transaction, they may send an invoice to the customer and remit the tax to the Ontario Government. Another example would be that if a business imported goods and failed to report and pay retail sales tax in respect of the importation, they may do so before an auditor knows on the door.

In addition, vendors and customers should communicate with each other about audits as the Minister is not entitled to impose a penalty on a vendor who failed to collect tax and assess the buyer for failure to pay tax on the same transaction --- the Minister cannot receive the same tax from both parties.

Audits take up the human resources of company officials and interfere with the operation of the business. Proactive steps by a business does save money, time and aggravation.

HST Place of Supply Rules for Litigators and Those Who Provide Litigation Services

Warning: On April 30, 2010 the Department of Finance released draft place of supply rules regulations that supersede/override the information in this post.  Please do not rely on the information in this post.

The HST place of supply rules include a specific rules for "services rendered in connection with litigation". These rules apply to lawyers, process servers, transcription service providers, those who provide expert opinions in connection with litigation, etc.

Rule #1: The general place of supply rules for services will apply to criminal, civil or administrative litigation services provided prior to the commencement of such litigation.  The general place of supply rule focuses on the billing address of the client and the place where the services are performed..  There is a hierarchy of 4 place of supply rules that are applied in order.

For example, if a person hires a lawyer to discuss whether the facts warrant litigation, the general rules apply.  If a person hires a lawyer to sue an opponent and discussions lead to a settlement before a statement of claim is filed with the Court, the general place of supply rules would apply. 

Rule #2: The general rules for services will not apply to litigation services rendered after the commencement of litigation. In other words, if there is an initiating document (such as a statement of claim) Rule 2 applies and Rule 1 does not apply.

Rule #3: If litigation has commenced, a supply of a service rendered in connection with criminal, civil or administrative litigation in an HST province will be regarded as being made in that HST province.  In other words, if the litigation is in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice and you have a court file number assigned, HST at the rate of 13% applies.

Rule #4: If litigation has commenced, a supply of a service rendered in connection with criminal, civil or administrative litigation in a non-HST province (e.g., Alberta) will be regarded as being made in that non-HST province.  In other words, if the litigation is in Alberta and you have a court file number assigned, HST will not be applicable to the services in connection with the litigation (however GST will be applicable).

Rule #5: If a supply of services in respect of litigation is supplied to a non-resident of Canada, the zero-rating provisions may apply to both the GST and HST component. The HST place of supply rules do not override the zero-rating provisions for exported services and professional services.

The HST place of supply rules do not currently distinguish between federal court litigation and provincial court litigation. As a result, it is not clear whether filing a Tax Court of Canada case in Alberta will save the litigants HST.  It is also not clear whether all pre-hearing meetings and the trial must take place in Alberta if the case is filed in Alberta.

It is also not clear whether all cases filed with the Canadian International Trade Tribunal, which is located in Ottawa, will be subject to Ontario HST at 13% even if the affected litigant is located in Alberta. The same confusion will hold true for many other administrative tribunals with all the powers of a superior court of record, such as the CRTC, the Competition Bureau, to name a few. There are a number of federal statutes that create administrative tribunals and a number of federal statutes establish appeal rights only to that federal tribunal that happens to be located in the nation's capital, Ottawa, which is located in the HST Zone. it will be interesting to watch whether access to justice issues are raised by persons (such as individuals) who cannot recover HST costs.

Another question is whether an arbitration is "litigation" under the place of supply rules and, therefore, subject to the specific place of supply rule discussed above that bases the application of HST on the place of the filing. If the Canada Revenue Agency takes the position that an arbitration is caught by the rules, arbitration centres in the HST Zone may not be popular with Canadian parties. Also, business law lawyers and in-house counsel may have to reconsider contractually stipulating that Ontario or British Columbia as the place of arbitration in contracts.

Lawyers should consider whether their clients can save HST based on the place of filing and should start asking the questions as part of their litigation strategy now --- given that litigation filed today will likely continue after HST implementation.

Lawyers and service providers should also recognize that the place of supply rule for pre-filing services is different than post-filing litigation services. Therefore, one file might involve a change in the HST rate. When this happens, it is best to open a new file at the time of the filing of the initiating document.

HST Place of Supply Rules for Goods: Suppliers Outside HST Zone Also Affected

On February 25, 2010, Canada's Department of Finance released its proposed harmonized sales tax (HST) place of supply rules which will be used to determine whether a supplier must charge, collect and remit HST in connection with a supply made in Canada and whether a recipient must pay HST in connection with an acquisition or importation and at what rate. Simply put, the proposed HST place of supply rules will be used to determine in which province a supply is considered to have occurred for HST purposes.

The proposed HST place of supply rules for tangible personal property (goods) may surprise sellers of goods located in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec and Prince Edward Island. Based on the Canada Revenue Agency's (CRA) views, some suppliers located in non-HST provinces may be required to charge, collect and remit HST. All suppliers of goods in Canada may need to consider whether they want to continue to ship goods to recipients in the HST Zone (and in particular Ontario and British Columbia). Some sellers of goods need to start working quickly to update their computer systems and accounting systems to account for HST on supplies of goods.

The proposed HST Place of Supply Rules to be in effect after July 1, 2010 are:

Rule #1: A supply of goods by way of sale is deemed to be made in a province if the supplier (Seller) of the goods delivers the goods or makes the goods available to the recipient (Buyer) in the province. For example, if an individual goes into a store in Ontario and purchases goods (e.g., a television), the store would charge HST at the rate of 13% (5% GST and 8% Ontario HST). The key fact is the place of delivery.

CRA Example: A supplier in Ontario agrees to sell to a purchaser in British Columbia. Based on the terms of delivery in the agreement for the supply of goods, legal delivery of the goods to the purchaser occurs in British Columbia.

CRA Position: The CRA takes the position that because legal delivery of the goods to the purchaser occurs in British Columbia, the supply of the goods is made in British Columbia and the supply will be subject to HST a rate of 12%.

CRA Example: A retailer in Ontario sells goods to a purchaser that is a resident of British Columbia and is visiting Ontario. The purchaser picks up the goods at the retailer's premises in Ontario and then transports the goods to British Columbia.

CRA Position: The goods are delivered to the purchaser in Ontario. The supply of goods is therefore made in Ontario and is proposed to be subject to HST at a rate of 13%.

Rule #2: A supply of goods by way of sale is deemed to be made inside the HST Zone (British Columbia, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador) if the legal delivery of the goods is made in that province. For the purposes of this rule, goods are deemed to be delivered in the HST Zone, and not outside the HST Zone, if the supplier either:

  • (a) ships the property to a destination in the HST Zone that is specified in the contract for shipment of the goods;
  • (b) transfers possession of the goods to a common carrier or consignee that the supplier has retained on behalf of the recipient (Buyer) to ship the goods to a destination in the HST Zone; or
  • (c) sends the goods by mail or courier to an address in the HST Zone.

Pursuant to this rule, Incoterms, such as F.O.B. (freight or board) or C.I.F. (cost, insurance freight) are important if the location stated is within the HST Zone.

CRA Example: A supplier in Alberta agrees to sell goods to a purchaser in Ontario. Based on the terms in the agreement for the supply of the goods, legal delivery of the goods to the purchaser occurs in Alberta. However, the supplier agrees to have the goods shipped to the purchaser in Ontario.

CRA Position: Although legal delivery of the goods to the purchaser occurs in Alberta, delivery of the goods to the purchaser is deemed to occur in Ontario because the supplier ships the goods to Ontario. The supply of goods is therefore made in Ontario and is proposed to be subject to HST at a rate of 13%.

CRA Example: A mail-order company located in Nova Scotia sells greeting cards to customers across Canada. The company places the packages of greeting cards in the mail for delivery to customers in Ontario and British Columbia.

CRA Position: The supply of greeting cards mailed to Ontario is made in Ontario and is proposed to be subject to HST at a rate of 13%. The supply of greeting cards mailed to British Columbia is made in British Columbia and is proposed to be subject to HST at a rate of 12%.

Rule #3: Where a recipient of a supply of goods by way of lease, license or similar arrangement (Lessee) subsequently exercises an option to purchase the goods, the recipient lessee is deemed to take delivery by way of sale at the time and place at which the recipient lessee ceased to have possession of the property as a lessee and begins to have possession of the property as a purchaser. The key fact is the location of the goods at the time the option to purchase is exercised.

For example, if a person in Ontario leases a piece of manufacturing equipment from a lessor in Quebec and exercises an option to purchase the equipment at a late date when the equipment is in Ontario, HST will be applicable at a rate of 13% in respect of the option price.

The rate of HST will depend on which HST Zone province is the destination.

Rule #4: Where a supply of goods is made by way of lease, license or similar arrangement (other than a specified motor vehicle) (e.g. an equipment lease) for consideration that is attributed to a period (referred to as a "lease interval") and the lease, license or similar arrangement exceeds three months, the supply is deemed to be made in the HST Zone if the ordinary location of the property is within the HST Zone.

For the purposes of the place of supply rules, the ordinary location of the property is deemed to be the location where the supplier and the recipient mutually agree. This is a concession because the supplier may not be in the best position to know where the recipient has the goods. The CRA states that, "In other words, the mutual agreement of the supplier and the recipient will be determinative even where the property is actually located in a different place at the relevant time than what had been agreed upon."

The CRA will look to the contract and any subsequent amendments to agreements to determine the location of the leased goods.

A separate supply of the goods is deemed to be made for each lease interval of the earliest of the first day of the lease interval, the day on which the lease payment attributable to the lease interval becomes due and the day the payment is made.

Rule #5: Where a supply of goods is made by way of lease, license or similar arrangement (other than a specified motor vehicle) (e.g. an equipment lease) and the lease, license or similar arrangement does not exceed three months, the supply is deemed to be made in province in which the supplier delivers the goods or makes the goods available to the recipient. For the purposes of this rule, goods are deemed to be delivered in the HST Zone, and not outside the HST Zone, if the supplier either:

  • (a) ships the property to a destination in the HST Zone that is specified in the contract for shipment of the goods;
  • (b) transfers possession of the goods to a common carrier or consignee that the supplier has retained on behalf of the recipient (Buyer) to ship the goods to a destination in the HST Zone; or
  • (c) sends the goods by mail or courier to an address in the HST Zone.

Harmonized Sales Tax's Restricted Input Tax Credits Rules Means Not 100% Recovery For All Ontario Businesses

The Ontario government will harmonize the provincial retail sales tax (RST) with the federal goods and services tax (GST) on July 1st, 2010. One of the benefits being discussed in certain circles as a reason to support harmonization is that  Ontario businesses will receive input tax credits (ITCs) and recover harmonized sales tax (HST) and GST paid on business purchases. They say business will essentially be able to recover the 13% paid on business purchases, including the HST component paid on previously non-taxable and exempt purchases for RST purposes.

However, this is not quite correct.  Not all businesses in Ontario will benefit immediately to the tune of 13% ITCs. Specifically, businesses with annual taxable supplies greater than $10 million (including corporate groups and related companies), as well as certain financial institutions, municipalities, charities, universities, colleges and schools, hospitals, nursing homes, etc., will be restricted from claiming ITCs for the provincial portion (currently 8 per cent) of the HST, until 2015.

The restricted ITCs are on a few business inputs, such as certain uses of energy; certain telecommunications services; certain road vehicles and their fuel; and food, beverages and entertainment. The ITCs restrictions will be in place for the first five years of the HST, after which ITCs on the exempt items will be phased out over the following three year period.

Ontario has released an Information Notice on Restricted Input Tax Credits to provide additional information to businesses.

Sales Tax Tip: Ask to Include the Auditor's Manager in Discussions

First, I should say, DO NOT CALL WOLF. Asking to include to the auditor's manager or the senior manager at a meeting with you (the vendor or taxpayer) and the auditor should be used in limited (but greater than occasional) circumstances. If you ask for a meeting, the general rule is that a meeting must be arranged.

In this blog post, I focus on Ontario retail sales tax. However, the concept also applies to goods and services tax (GST).

I have asked for a meeting with the auditor's manager or senior manager when there is a fundamental disagreement of the applicability to a taxing provision to a client's situation. I have asked for a meeting when the auditor does not appear to understand the facts (often the facts are complex) and I feel that the auditor is going to raise an assessment incorrectly. I ask for a meeting with the auditor's manager when there is a serious personality conflict between my client and the auditor (it has happened) and I feel that the auditor may be biased and intent on punishing my client.

I do not ask to speak to the auditor's manager to intimidate the auditor - it does not work. I do not ask to speak to the auditor's manager regarding little issues. I do not ask to speak to the auditor's manager on the first day of the audit. I do not ask to speak to the auditor's manager when my client is clearly in the wrong.

In Ontario, if a retail sales tax assessment is issued, then the auditor's job is complete and the only recourse a vendor or taxpayer has is to file a notice of objection. It currently takes over 2 years for a notice of objection to be reviewed by the Ontario Ministry of Revenue Tax Appeals Branch. Usually, the tax assessment must be paid within 18 months and interest continues to accrue. For this reason, I feel it is my role to make sure the auditor gets the assessment correct.

If I receive an audit summary (which is a summary of the auditor's findings), which usually precedes the actual assessment, I ask for the reasons for the assessment. When there is a disagreement over the law or an interpretation of the law, an administrative statement or a court decision, I ask to speak to the auditor's manager, who usually has more discretion and more experience. Sometimes I for the auditor to write Tax Advisory for a ruling and that I will help with the facts so that the answer received is more likely to be correct (does not always happen that way).

There is a fine line between being assertive and aggressive, proactive and reactive. That being said, recently, managers have agreed with me (when I have known that i am correct) and some assessments have been reduced (1) Case 1: from over $1 million to close to $0, (2) Case 2: from approximately $500,000 to about $25,000 and (3) Case 3: by over $300,000. These results obviously depended on the particular circumstances of the file.

Make An HST CheckList

Harmonized Sales Tax (“HST") will become a reality in Ontario and British Columbia on July 1, 2010. However, some businesses will be required to start collecting HST on May 1, 2010. In addition, some businesses outside the HST Zone ( HST Zone = Ontario, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland/Labrador) will also be required to charge collect and remit HST to the Federal Government in accordance with the place of supply rules when the place of supply is within the HST Zone.

It is time to make a “To-Do" list to get ready for HST. The Canadian Federation of Independent Businesses (CFIB) has released an HST checklist this week.

The CFIB list applies for businesses with gross revenues less than $10 million. This is not limited to corporations, trusts, partnerships or sole proprietorships, it also includes family of businesses that are related to each other as the threshold test would be applicable to persons and their related entities.

The checklist below builds on the CFIB list is as follows:

  • Formulate an internal committee of persons who will oversee the HST conversion - the group includes more than top management and the tax specialist/chief financial officer. Plan to meet weekly and prepare checklists.
  • Calculate a budget to address HST conversion issues, including information technology programmers to update your systems and advisors on HST.
  • Contact the persons in your business responsible for information technology as they will be on the front-lines in updating your computer systems.
  • Conduct a sales side audit and determine whether the supplies made by your business are subject to HST. Your business may be required to charge HST on goods that were not subject to retail sales tax.
  • Update sales equipment (e.g. cash registers) and computer systems in order to properly charge HST.
  • Ensure your invoices properly state whether HST is applicable, the HST rate, your GST/HST registration number, and all other information required by the input tax credit regulations.
  • Consider whether your business may offer point of sale rebates and make adjustments to record-keeping.
  • Conduct a purchase side audit and determine whether your purchases are subject to HST. HST will affect what you sell and what you buy. Purchase exemption certificates will no longer be usable when your business buys what were previously RST exempt goods, such as goods that are purchased to be resupplied.
  • Determine your largest expense items and review your largest contracts to determine what will change with the implementation of HST.
  • Identify which suppliers to your business may not be sophisticated enough about HST and ensure they charge the correct amount of HST. Since the Canada Revenue Agency may assess both suppliers and recipients, purchasers have a duty to check the invoicing of their suppliers.
  • Consider whether HST will affect your cash flow and make arrangements for credit. Commercial rent, inventory, electricity, production equipment & machinery, goods purchased for resupply, custom computer software, etc will be subject to HST (and was not subject to RST).
  • Review the transition rules to see when you must start to collect HST or pay HST and when you must self-assess HST.  It can be as early as May 1, 2010.
  • Determine whether the restricted ITC rules apply to your business/related businesses. If your business is over the $10 million threshold, you will not be able to recover HST paid on certain purchases for the first three years of HST. You will be required to set up accounting records to track and report restricted input tax credits on a province-by-province basis. The reporting on HST returns will start on July 2010 GST/HST return, which must be filed electronically.
  • Determine whether you are required to file GST/HST returns electronically, what method of filing electronically your business must use and make arrangements to be able to file electronically starting in July 2010.
  • Determine whether the place of supply rules require your business to charge HST. If your business operates in more than one province, the assessment must be made on a province-by-province and supply-by-supply basis.
  • Set up accounting records for each applicable HST province.
  • Establish internal policies and procedures to ensure HST is properly charged
  • Prepare written materials for sales staff to follow and train your staff on HST.
  • Update sales equipment so that HST is charged at the point of sale.
  • Update computerized payments so that HST is charged where applicable. In some cases, computer programs will need to be rewritten/updated so that the place of delivery (e.g. goods) is reviewed in determining whether HST is applicable.
  • Adjust online payment software or web interfaces used for selling via the Internet (or receiving payments for services and intangibles via the Internet) to reflect the applicable HST rates.
  • Update the information communicated on websites.
  • Prepare and publish new written materials if the publications include information on sales taxes charged.
  • Update internal computer/record keeping, record keeping on input tax credit claims, rebates, refunds, etc., accounts payable record keeping, accounting records on meals and entertainment expenses and taxable benefit calculations.
  • Update internal reports - e.g., expense reports spreadsheets, employee cars, inter company transactions, etc..
  • Determine whether your business must pay HST on imported goods, services and/or intangible property.
  • Determine whether any inter company payments are subject to HST and make adjustments to records and expectations.
  • Take steps to ensure that the business stops collecting retail sales tax/social services tax on July 1, 2010 and that the final returns are prepared
  • Prepare PST/RST/SST records to be audited as both Ontario and British Columbia have said they plan to conduct four years of audits in the next two years.
  • Consider whether the job descriptions of employees need to be updated to reflect HST responsibilities.
  • Public relations - consider whether you need to educate your customers about HST.

This list is not all-inclusive.

New GST/HST Electronic Filing Requirements Announced

To little fanfare and no media attention, on January 4, 2010, The Honourable Jean-Pierre Blackburn, Minister of National Revenue and Minister of State (Agriculture and Agri-Food) announced proposed changes to electronic filing requirements for goods and services tax/harmonized sales tax (GST/HST) registrants beginning July 1, 2010.

The reason for the electronic filing requirements is that the Canada Revenue Agency needs to gather information so that the Department of Finance can communicate information to Ontario and British Columbia pursuant to the CITCAs (a.k.a. HST Agreements).

Currently, only GST/HST registrants who meet the criteria set by the Minister of National Revenue have the option to use electronic filing. As a result of the proposed changes, restrictions will be removed so that all registrants, including those registrants that file a return with Revenu Québec, will be able to file electronically.

Under the new proposed measures, the following groups will be required to file their GST/HST returns electronically:

  • GST/HST registrants with greater than $1.5 million in annual taxable supplies (except for charities); or
  • all registrants required to recapture input tax credits for the provincial portion of the HST on certain inputs in Ontario or British Columbia; or
  • builders affected by the transitional housing measures announced by Ontario or British Columbia.

In general, charities and most GST/HST registrants with annual taxable supplies of $1.5 million or less will not be affected by these changes, although the CRA is encouraging all GST/HST registrants, regardless of their filing frequency and reporting requirements, to use electronic services.

Regulations specifying the persons and classes of persons who will be required to file an electronic return will be available soon (government has been prorogued).

The CRA will offer several electronic filing options for GST/HST registrants. However, many registrants will not have an option and will be forced to use a particular electronic filing method.

  • GST/HST NETFILE
    • Netfile is a free Internet-based filing service that allows registrants to file their returns directly to the CRA over the Internet. To file using GST/HST NETFILE, registrants complete an online form, enter the required information and confirm that they want to file their return. Once the registrant hits <submit></submit></submit><//submit>a confirmation page will immediately be displayed containing the six-digit confirmation number.
    • It is proposed that the following GST/HST registrants would be required to file an electronic return using GST/HST NETFILE effective for the first reporting period that ends on or after July 1, 2010:
    • any registrants that are required to recapture ITCs on the provincial portion of the HST on certain inputs in Ontario or British Columbia (see below); and
    • builders that
      • make sales of grandparented housing where the purchaser is not entitled to claim a GST/HST new housing rebate or new residential rental property rebate;
      • make sales of housing that are subject to the HST where the builder purchased the housing on a grandparented basis;
      • are required to report a transitional tax adjustment amount; or
      • report provincial transitional new housing rebates (see below).
    • In conjunction with these proposed new filing requirements, the CRA will include new information fields on the GST/HST NETFILE return for these registrants.

  • GST/HST TELEFILE
    • Telefile allows eligible registrants to file their GST/HST returns using their touch-tone telephone and a toll-free number.
    • It is also proposed that each builder having greater than $1.5 million in annual taxable supplies that is not otherwise required to file using GST/HST NETFILE and that pays or credits a GST/HST new housing rebate amount to the purchaser and claims that amount as a deduction from the builder’s GST/HST liability would be required to file an electronic return using GST/HST NETFILE or GST/HST TELEFILE effective for the first reporting period that ends on or after July 1, 2010.

    • As a result of the proposed changes, the CRA will include new information fields on the GST/HST NETFILE and GST/HST TELEFILE returns for these registrants.

  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
    • EDI is a computer-to-computer exchange of information in a standard format. Eligible registrants can use EDI to file their GST/HST returns and remit their GST/HST payments electronically.
  • GST/HST Internet File Transfer (GIFT)
    • GIFT is a new option that allows eligible registrants to utilize third-party CRA certified accounting software to file their returns electronically.
    • It is also proposed that all GST/HST registrants, other than those required to file using GST/HST NETFILE or GST/HST TELEFILE and with greater than $1.5 million in annual taxable supplies, excluding charities, would be required to file an electronic return using GST/HST NETFILE, GST/HST TELEFILE, EDI or GIFT effective for the first reporting period that ends on or after July 1, 2010.

The CRA provides the following chart:

 

 

Type of Business Filing Options

Businesses that:
a) are required to recapture ITCs for the provincial portion of the HST on certain inputs in Ontario or British Columbia; or
b) are builders who sell grandparented housing where the purchaser is not entitled to claim a GST/HST new housing rebate or new residential rental property rebate; or
c) are builders who sell housing subject to the HST where the builder purchased that housing on a grandparented basis; or
d) are builders who are required to remit the transitional tax adjustment on housing; or
e) are builders who are reporting provincial transitional new housing rebates.

GST/HST NETFILE

Unless required to file using GST/HST NETFILE, builders with greater than $1.5 million in annual taxable supplies that pay or credit a GST/HST new housing rebate amount to the purchaser and claim that amount as a deduction from their GST/HST liability.

GST/HST NETFILE
GST/HST TELEFILE

Businesses that are not required to file using GST/HST NETFILE or GST/HST TELEFILE and with annual taxable supplies exceeding $1.5 million, excluding charities.

GST/HST NETFILE
GST/HST TELEFILE
GIFT
EDI

All other businesses.

GST/HST NETFILE
GST/HST TELEFILE
GIFT
EDI
Paper Return

The businesses that I have spoken with suggest that there are complications that need to be considered.  It is necessary to communicate with the Canada Revenue Agency if there are any problems so that notes can be made in your file and accommodations can be discussed.

Preparing for Harmonized Sales Tax

The current plans are that Ontario and British Columbia will harmonize their provincial sales taxes ("PST") with the goods and services tax ("GST") on July 1, 2010. Whether you support the idea of harmonized sales tax ("HST") or not, all businesses must prepare for the sales tax reform or risk costly errors in the future.

In preparing for the HST, there is a very long list of questions that should be asked. The following list is only the "tip of the iceberg":

1.      Has your business changed the general ledger ("GL") accounts for your 2010 taxation year to reflect change on July 1, 2010? Since HST will be implemented on July 1, 2010, any business that does not have a June 30th year end will need to ensure that the accounting records have the additional GL accounts so that PST is recorded pre-July 1, 2010, HST is recorded post-July 1, 2010 and that the tax base of depreciable capital costs include PST pre-July 1, 2010 and do not record recoverable costs post July 1, 2010. There are a number of other adjustments that will be required.

2.      Has your business adjusted its record-keeping to track restricted input tax credits? The Ontario and British Columbia HST proposals included the announcement that between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012, large businesses (businesses making over $10 million in taxable sales) will not be entitled to receive any input tax credits ("ITCs") (that is, recover HST paid) on purchases of:

  • (a)    Energy (except where purchased by farms and for use in producing goods for sale;

  • (b)   Telecommunication services (other than internet access and toll-free numbers);

  • (c)    Certain automobiles and road vehicles; and

  • (d)   Meals and entertainment expenses.

The time period for full restrictions on ITCs may be extended. The current plans are for the restrictions to be phased out between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2015. As a result of the restrictions on the HST component, large businesses and any business that may become a large business (that is, may exceed the $10 million taxable sales threshold in an affected taxation year) should record the GST component and HST component separately in their books and records for these expense items.

3.      Has your business considered whether HST will affect cash flows and budgets? Many businesses have not yet considered whether payment of HST on commercial rent, electricity, production equipment and machinery, management fees, legal fees, accounting fees, temporary placement, rights to use intellectual property, etc. will affect their cash flow. Businesses that file GST/HST annually, quarterly or even monthly may have to address cash flow issues that will arise due to the upfront payment of GST/HST to suppliers and the delay before claiming permissible input tax credits.

4.      Has your business considered when the HST rules will start to affect your business decisions and activities? On October 14, 2009, the Ontario and British Columbia governments released publications outlining the transition rules for transactions that occur after October 14, 2009. The underlying purpose of the transition rules is to ensure that the provinces receive HST after July 1, 2010, even if arrangements were made prior to that date.

Type of Supply

Consideration Due or paid after July 1, 2010

Consideration Due or paid between May 1, 2010 and July 1, 2010

Consideration Due or paid between October 14, 2009 and July 1, 2010 (Category A Businesses)

Sales of Tangible Personal Property

HST applies

HST applies – registered vendors should begin collecting

HST applies re certain businesses required to self assess

Leases and Licenses Tangible Personal Property

HST Applies

HST applies – registered vendors should begin collecting

HST applies re certain businesses required to self assess

Services

HST Applies

HST applies – registered vendors should begin collecting

HST applies re certain businesses required to self assess

Sales of  real property (not residential)

HST Applies

NO HST

NO HST

Sales intangible property

HST Applies

NO HST

NO HST

Type of Imported Supply

Consideration Due or paid after July 1, 2010

Consideration Due or paid between May 1, 2010 and July 1, 2010

Consideration Due or paid between October 14, 2009 and July 1, 2010

Imported TPP (crosses border into Ontario/BC after July 1, 2010

HST applies

HST applies

HST applies re certain businesses required to self assess

Imported Services for consumption, use or supply in ON or BC to extent service performed a/f July 1, 2010

HST Applies

HST applies

HST applies re certain businesses required to self assess

Imported IPP for consumption, use or supply in ON or BC to extent IPP leased, licenses a/f July 1, 2010

HST Applies

HST applies

HST applies re certain businesses required to self assess

(There are many complex transition rules but these are not set in this abridged article. See the editor's note below. Indeed, there are a number of industry-specific transition rules relating to prepaid funeral and cemetery services, subscriptions to newspapers, magazines and periodicals, passenger transportation services, freight transportation services, commercial parking passes, memberships in clubs, organizations and associations, admissions to places of amusement, direct sellers, continuous supplies, real property construction, combined supplies, progress payments, holdbacks, etc.)

5.      Has your business undertaken a review of each existing contract to determine whether HST is going to be applicable? This question needs to be asked if your business is the vendor/supplier or the purchaser/recipient. If a business does not undertake this exercise, the business will be exposed to audit risk.

6.      Are there any changes required to your business' public statements on web-sites, quotation sheets, contracts, etc.?  Does your business communicate to customers/clients which sales taxes you will be charging or whether certain sales taxes are included in quoted prices? Do you sell to persons who may not be familiar with the proposed HST changes and who may challenge the charges at a late date in court? Do you sell to municipalities that will not be entitled to receive 100% of the HST by way of a public sector rebate? Do you sell to businesses and charities which are not able to recover the entire HST component? In short, the manner in which your business communicates information may expose your business to litigation risk with third parties.

7.      Are there any improvements that should be made to your documentation to ensure that you have the evidence necessary to justify non-collection of HST on export sales of goods and services that occurred outside Ontario or British Columbia? If a business does not charge, collect and remit the correct percentage of GST/HST (13% for Ontario and 12% for British Columbia), then a Canda Revenue Agency ("CRA") auditor may ask for evidence to justify a decision. If a business exports goods, the auditor may require proof of exportation and all shipping documents, including import documentation from the foreign jurisdiction. If the destination is another Canadian province, proof of delivery to that jurisdiction will likely be required. Contracts and invoices should indicate the place of delivery clearly. Since it is difficult to document the place of delivery of services and intangible property, questions should be asked concerning what documentation may be recorded and maintained. For example, a service provider may be required to present dockets on time spent outside Ontario or British Columbia performing services, hotel receipts, travel tickets, etc. 

8.      Has your business educated the accounting staff about the HST changes and trained the staff on recording information on incoming and outgoing invoices to account for the HST component? The CRA auditors require the business to review each and every invoice to ensure the GST/HST is correct. If a business fails to detect errors by suppliers, the recipient may be assessed unpaid GST/HST, penalties and interest. In addition, if an incoming invoice from a supplier does not satisfy the documentary requirements for claiming ITC's, an auditor may deny the credits.

9.      Has your business implemented codes of conduct or internal policies relating to sales taxes and income taxes in Canada that must be updated? If your business does not have internal controls, should internal checks & balances be established?

10.  Has your business considered whether the change to HST creates any opportunities to save money?

As mentioned, this list of questions is not definitive, but points to the scope of matters to be considered in preparing for harmonization.

Federal Legislation to Start HST Implementation Passes

Canada's federal harmonized sales tax (HST) implementing legislation is Bill C-62 "Provincial Choice Tax Framework Act", which received Royal Assent in the House of Commons on December 15, 2009.  The Canadian Senate passed Bill C-62 on December 15, 2009.

Bill C-62 (became Chapter 32 upon Royal Assent) amends the Excise Tax Act (the “Act") to implement, effective July 1, 2010, the new fully harmonized value-added tax framework in Ontario and British Columbia. It also facilitates the new framework to accommodate any province's decision to have the provincial component of the harmonized value-added tax under the Act apply in that province by achieving a common understanding with Canada in respect of such a new framework.

It is important to note that the federal implementing legislation does not contain the place of supply rules, which will be implemented by way of regulation, instead of by way of legislation. This means that the House of Commons and Senate do not approve the place of supply rules. The place of supply rules regulations will become law upon promulgation of the Governor-in-Council (that is Cabinet). This may prove to be problematic and is a reason to watch the Canada Gazette carefully.

Ontario Has Passed HST Implmenting Legislation

The "Jaws" theme is playing in the background ....

In December 2009, the formal steps were taken to pass the harmonized sales tax ("HST") implementing legislation in the Ontario Legislature.

Ontario proposed in the 2009 Budget that, effective July 1, 2010, Ontario’s retail sales tax (RST) will be replaced with the HST. The HST will have a combined sales tax rate of 13 per cent (combining the existing five per cent federal goods and services tax (GST) and an eight per cent Ontario component). The HST will be administered by the Canada Revenue Agency. All businesses currently registered for GST will automatically be registered for the Ontario HST on July 1, 2010. 

On December 9, 2009, the Ontario Legislature, Bill 218 "Ontario Tax Plan for More Jobs and Growth Act, 2009" passed third reading and is law. passage occurred despite attempts by the official opposition, the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, Opposition Leader Tim Hudak and HST Critic Lisa MacLeod to stop the bill.

Bill 218 implements the "Comprehensive Integrated Tax Coordination Agreement" between Ontario and the Federal Government and the original Memorandum of Agreement Concerning a Canada-Ontario Comprehensive Integrated Tax Co-ordination Agreement" between Ontario and the Federal Government, which started the HST plans in motion.